Saturday, November 13, 2021

material requirements planning

Material Requirements Planning

Material Requirements Planning

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What is Material Requirements Planning

A Material Requirements Planning (MRP) system is a planning and decision-making tool used in the production process which analyses current inventory levels vs production capacity and the need to manufacture goods, based on forecasts.

Section 1: What is MRP?

MRP allows you to plan for future production needs by assessing current inventories and production capacity and predicting how many units the company needs for an upcoming year or quarter. Using the data they’ve obtained from MRP, production team managers can decide the best and fastest way to get the items to the factory. The more accurate the forecasts are, the better decisions can be made on where, when, and how to make changes. This ensures your products will be manufactured on time, with high quality, and at the correct price. MRP can help save your business time and money by not having to take these kinds of reactive measures. MRP can also help companies prevent costly factory delays caused by unforeseen production or delivery problems.

Why are MRP systems used?

The potential benefits of the MRP system include: Reduce inventory Lower the cost of inventory because stock levels are kept to a minimum. increase turnaround times improve the quality of the factory by reducing the risks of running out of products reduce costs of material add up to a $15k/year saving (on average) in labor costs per 100k So, why not use this system at your company? Have you heard of the economy? Well, a few things in life like this. As a leading manufacturer, increasing competition for the same products you make and the competition for employees who are wanting to work for a company which can give them a good salary to spend on things which are needed. The average salary for your employees is lower than you expect.

Is it necessary to have an MRP system?

If you are producing cars or electronics you certainly need a MRP system. This includes the entire product lifecycle. What are the most important tasks for MRP system software? 1) The usual task is to automatically adjust the production quantities according to each production step, to adjust to peaks or troughs. 2) Improve your job scheduler. We’ve seen 3 other examples of MRP systems integrated into tools like PLC and SCADA systems. The importance of configuration A MRP system software must support any configuration from basic to highly complex. You must be able to configure in the exact order, required for each new item on the production line. An essential component is storage and management of all raw materials, intermediate goods and finished goods on-line.

How do I choose the best software for my business?

The one I choose to use should allow me to integrate into my existing software as part of the integration process or, preferably, be built into it, like Configurator for 3D printing. Selecting the right software for your business should be based on a thorough research into your end customers. The key question for most is 'Do we sell to a consumer or a producer?' It should also be based on my business's specific inventory planning needs, as detailed in my profile below. Some business models require a different approach to planning and decision-making than others. If you want to create a plan for your business, here's what you need to know. Types of material requirement planning software MRP systems are best-suited to businesses that manufacture and/or produce goods.


By knowing what you actually have, you can make decisions about what to do to fulfill your customers' orders, better predict your supply in terms of how many resources you will need, and decide what to make. But how do you actually obtain the information you need? What are you to do with the data you obtain from your inventory? Should you simply decide to stop producing something? Or do you use it to make decisions that influence your production, or to make the processes more efficient? Or do you invest the information and improve your manufacturing process? If you are a CEO in a big corporation, you should not be doing any of those things. It is for the big company CEO to decide what to do with the information and to make decisions that benefit the company as a whole.

Saturday, October 2, 2021

conduction heat transfer

Conduction Heat Transfer

Conduction Heat Transfer

Whatis Conduction Heat Transfer

The production and convection of heat is of major importance in the workings of all living organisms, whether they are plants, animals, or some other form of life. For example, the metabolism of the human body requires the transfer of heat through the metabolism of food and body tissues. Heat is often considered to be one of the primary tools of life as it is very useful in performing various vital functions. Each one of the molecules (or atoms) in a given substance has a specific heat of a particular type. For example, the temperature at the center of a red apple (and most other molecules) is much higher than the temperature of the center of the apple. The heat generated by these collisions in the apple has to be balanced by the heat lost from these molecules in the form of heat.

What is conduction?

Conduction is how energy is transferred in any object or system that involves the movement of electrons. This is particularly significant in electronics and thermostats. Concrete conduction involves the movement of heat as electrons between two conductive materials. A material with a high resistance can transfer heat in a more efficient way than a material with low resistance. A common example of high resistance and low resistance is glass or copper, a material used in building materials, pipes and wiring. Types of Conduction Based on current applications, we can break conduction down into two types: thermal and electrical. Conventional thermal conduction is achieved through a temperature gradient that causes heat to move between two materials.

How does it work?

When an object is heated, it's hot. When an object is cooled, it's cold. What about when it transfers its internal energy to another object, which can be heated or cooled? Through temperature differences, energy is transferred from one object to the other. For example, if you place a hot cup of coffee on the lip of a wine glass, it will have to travel inside the glass to reach the liquid. Once the liquid is hot, it transfers its internal energy to the metal around the rim, heating it. This process releases heat and makes the wine warmer, causing the liquid to flow faster from the middle of the glass to the lip, where the coffee resides. A similar thing happens when you place a cold glass bottle of beer in the hand of a fan.

Applications of conduction heat transfer

Thermal conduction in its simplest form, or the basic level, is used to transport heat from one location to another. The amount of heat a conduction system can transport is governed by the type of heat transfer medium it has, as well as the temperature difference between the two ends of the transfer system. Through conduction, heat can be transferred from a hotter to a cooler environment. The primary method of conduction is by using contact. In the process of conduction, each particle and each the mechanical systems within the structure has its own temperature. Contact-type of heat transfer occurs between two bodies of different temperatures. Contact heat transfer is achieved through temperature differences of each bodies at the contact surface.


Continuous flow of metabolic gases into your body requires supply of pure, clean oxygen. Oxygen is critical to all functions within your body including but not limited to to respiratory, cardiovascular, and muscular systems. On the other hand, maintaining a proper blood oxygen level depends on the ability of the heart to pump blood to the lungs where it is needed. Without this continuous flow of oxygen into your body, the body’s functions in terms of metabolism and other life sustaining processes would be inhibited. The distribution of all kinds of nutrients in your body depend on the distribution of oxygen in your body and that is why you must maintain an optimum level of blood oxygen level.

Thursday, September 30, 2021

double entry accounting

Double Entry Accounting

Double Entry Accounting

The double-entry system has two equal and corresponding sides known as debit and credit.

Double Entry System

Debit and Credit A debit or credit entry is recorded for an account when an amount is received from a customer and a corresponding amount is credited to the seller's account. This can also be called a debit entry. In a double-entry system the debits are recorded before the credits and vice-versa. A credit entry is also recorded for an account when a debit is made. The double-entry system does not place a greater value on the credit than on the debit. A credit is recorded for an account when a specific amount of money is transferred to it, and not the aggregate of the entire accounts. For example, when a check is written the transaction is for $1, and the total amount of money transferred from the seller's account to the buyer's account is $1.

Double Entry Accounting

Suppose Alice and Bob are two businesses, and they each have a ledger. They each have $1,000 in their account. Every day, Alice enters the current balance on her ledger: $1,000. Every day, Bob enters the current balance on his ledger: $1,000. Alice credits the previous day’s balance with $1,000. Bob credits the previous day’s balance with $1,000. Every day, each side of the ledger balances out and then credits or debits each other. When Alice and Bob each enter their accounts, their entries are first credited, then debited, and then both become zero. In accounting, a double-entry system is different from a simple accounting system. A simple accounting system uses only one ledger, and the accounting numbers, transactions, and figures on a ledger are all in the same order.

Double Entry Bookkeeping

If a person tries to put a check in the bank it doesn’t mean the bank just has to give the person a credit. It also has to give them the same amount of money in their account in a different account. These two accounts must both balance in order for the bank to give them the same amount of money. This way if someone deposits $100 they are paid $100 in cash. The bank then also has to take the $100 from one of their accounts and give the money to someone else so that account is also paid out. This is what we call a debit and a credit. Everything In The Bank Changes The same thing goes for someone’s bank account. Every transaction in the account changes that person’s bank balance.


Here is a graphic with a quick and simplified explanation of double-entry bookkeeping: You can learn more about double-entry bookkeeping in the infographic below. Timeline 1772—Andrew Jackson's wife, Rachel, passes away, causing him to leave the presidency for a period of mourning. 1835—A company known as the Industrial Credit Association (ICA) forms and offers a form of business credit where companies use this form of money for their operations. 1855—The first "automatic deposit" occurs when a bank uses numerics instead of marks. 1863—Central banks are first established. 1930—The first modern credit card is introduced in Great Britain. 1933—The first to issue automatic receipts begins in the U.S. 1977—The first debit card is introduced.

Tuesday, September 28, 2021

mechanical engineering

Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical engineers work mostly in engineering services, research and development, and manufacturing. Most engineers work in other fields as well, though. What are mechanical engineering disciplines? The most common disciplines in mechanical engineering are mechanics and applied mechanics, drafting and design, and manufacturing and systems engineering. What is the educational background for a mechanical engineer? To become a mechanical engineer, you must first enroll in a degree program and then follow up with at least an associate degree. What are the most common job titles for mechanical engineers?

Typical work tasks

* Design and development of tools, machines, and prototypes to meet customer requirements * Development of system solutions in engineering services * Design of heavy equipment such as bearings, compressors, motors, and hydraulic systems * Design of hardware, software, and embedded system designs * Design and development of composite material, metal, and plastic parts * Research and development * Engineering services * Engineering research About Mechanical Engineering Mechanical engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the design, development, testing, and manufacture of machines and devices that are used in the industries of science, technology, and transportation

Types of mechanical engineers

First, there is mechanical engineer. Second, there is mechanical engineer supervisor. Third, there is a mechanical engineer. These terms are interchangeably used to refer to a mechanical engineer depending on the specialty. However, according to Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data, these terms are not the most commonly used. For instance, in a telephone survey of mechanical engineers, roughly two-thirds of the respondents called themselves engineers. ... When identifying a mechanical engineer, we selected occupations listed in the National Association of Manufacturers’ Manufacturing Engineering Professions/Technicians and Technologists National Occupational Classification System (MEN/TAS).

Where can you find a mechanical engineer?

To find a mechanical engineer, you can search for a mechanical engineer in your area by using sites such as Mechanical Engineers in USA. Many search engines will also allow you to search by job title such as mechanical engineer. Mechanical engineers in a school At some of the universities, mechanical engineers can specialize in: Applied Mechanics Electrical and Computer Engineering Computer Sciences and Software Engineering Chemical Engineering Material Engineering Materials Science Mathematics, or mathematics and technology Do I have to be a good student to become a mechanical engineer? Most mechanical engineers come from other majors such as computer science, math, economics, physics, engineering or another major.


Most people think that mechanical engineering is about building or fixing things. It is about that, but much more. Mechanical engineers use their knowledge of the physics of matter to make things move. This is done in a huge variety of ways and with a wide variety of materials. Mechanical engineers use a range of tools and structures to do this, and produce things with all sorts of properties and uses. Some people work in factories and other companies where they work on large scale and really understand the physics of the process they are working with. Mechanical engineers make things that move, or structures that move things, or manage their movement. You can find out more about what mechanical engineers do in our list of the 50 highest paying jobs in the world.

Sunday, September 26, 2021

graph theory

What is Graph Theory?

Graph Theory

Graph theory is a branch of mathematics that deals with mathematically modeling the relationships between vertices in a graph, as well as the graphs formed from their vertices. There are many fascinating and non-trivial properties of graphs, but we are only going to focus on one important aspect of graph theory called the treewidth of a graph, which is an abstract measure that relates how connected two objects are. For more information on graph theory, please refer to the graph theory tutorial. Is Graphing Difficult? If you are new to graphing, then you might be thinking, “is graphing hard?” Actually, the answer to this question depends a lot on the graph you want to represent. For example, if you want to draw a triangle, you don’t need to be an expert in graph theory to do so.

Types of Graphs

Graphs can be classified in many different ways, depending on their shape and what roles they play in a particular system. Here are some of the more common classifications: Euclidean Graphs A Euclidean graph is one that is composed of the same number of vertices as the number of edges in the structure. For example, the graph with four vertices and four edges could be considered to be composed of four triangles. There are many famous Euclidean graphs that are used in many different areas of mathematics, including: Equidimensional Graphs A particular kind of graph that we might see frequently in maths, especially when working with graph theory, is the special kind of graph called a simplex. Here is an example of a simplex: This is a special kind of graph with edges, but not vertices.

How to read graphs

Graphs are usually represented as an n x n matrix where the first row and the first column represent each vertex, and the last column represents the vertex edge associated with it. More explicitly, the red and green vertices of the example on the right represent the same vertex: an object that belongs to Red. It is denoted as R . The orange vertices represent the object belonging to Green. They are denoted G . The colors of the vertices are actually isomorphic to the complex numbers: if you take an assignment of real and imaginary parts and compare them, then they will have the same real part and the same imaginary part.

Types of Graphs (cont.)

There are many different types of graphs, but these are the most common: graphs with edges graphs with no edges graphs with one vertex (called a node) and one edge (called a link) graphs with more than one vertex Examples of Graphs Some examples of graph structures are: Building the Tableau Pipeline Tableau is an emerging analytics platform that can be used to visualize data in a manner that resembles graphs. Below, we'll explore the basics of the Tableau platform. Introducing the user interface to the platform will help you understand how you might use Tableau to analyze, visualize, and share data. Your brain is wired to learn in sequential ways. What a person learns at any given time is constructed incrementally.

Examples of Graphs in the Real World

Abstract Graphs Spherical and Euclidean Graphs Complete Graphs Complete Graphs such as the Perfect Geometric Universe Convoluted Graphs Lemma of the Perfect Geometric Universe For example, if a node A is connected to B and C, there must be a path from A to C and a path from B to A, in which A comes closer to C. What Is a Complex Graph? A complex graph is a graph in which each vertex has more than two neighbors. For instance, a real-world graph of four faces would be the tetrahedron.


So if I was to sum up the key points, we would be looking at the following 3 maps: Traveling along your iPhone’s maps when using Apple Maps, most of the time you would be using the space “Apples Maps”. If the map looks very similar to the maps you are used to, then you may be using Google Maps. Once you have found a route which seems good, press on that route with the option to change the way to travel. This will display a route which you can follow without taking an unnecessary journey. This route can have several variations, for example, if you take the outside route instead of the inside. If you’ve already picked a route and are continuing to travel along that route, the map will display your progress and your current location.

Monday, September 20, 2021

elasticity of demand

Elasticity of Demand

Elasticity of Demand

Even though quantity demanded is a reaction to price, it is a variable on its own: It changes as a function of price. What Is Elasticity of Demand? A very important price indicator is the elasticity of demand (EL) of a good or service. When a product or service is sold at a price that is generally expected by consumers, but when the price is increased, the quantity demanded is likely to fall. In other words, ELO (elasticity of demand) is a measure of the responsiveness of demand to a change in price. If a price increase causes the price to rise by 3 percent or more, the percentage reduction in demand caused by that price increase will be 3 percent or less. At the same time, the percentage increase in demand that can be expected from a price decrease is much less.

The Basic Economic Model

The Keynesian model, still widely used, places the price of the good, the supply of the good and the demand for the good on two main axes: the price axis represents the quantity demanded for the good, while the supply axis represents the quantity supplied for the good. In order to figure out how much the price changes for a given change in the quantity supplied, we need to apply the relationship in the Keynesian model. The equation to do this is known as the supply and demand equation. Looking at the figure above, the supply axis can be described as: Where: Q : The quantity supplied for the good Q = Q – Q-1. = Q-1. K : The quantity demanded for the good = Q-1. K-1. And the demand axis represents the quantities demanded: QD : The quantity demanded for the good QD = Q-D-1. = Q-D-1.

Types of Elasticity

Many types of demand can be analytically modeled in such a way that one can determine the amount of elasticity of demand and the associated price elasticity. The most common in economics is the demand elasticity (DE). The demand DE of an intermediate good is given by the following equation, where g is the quantity demanded: DE = αgL + βg + εg The expression α is the elasticity of demand. ε is the elasticity of substitution, i.e., the price elasticity of demand. εa is the elasticity of marginal cost. The formula is used for intangibles such as, say, brand names, or it can be used for goods such as cars where a great deal of price and content variation is generated by variations in the output costs for various suppliers and in the profit margins of the various types of customers.

The Importance of Price Elasticity of Demand

In any environment of changing supply and demand, elasticity of demand is the factor that will have the greatest influence on the increase or decrease in prices. A change in the elasticity of demand will cause a change in the direction of the supply curve. Thus, if the demand for a good increases, a rise in price will result. The same goes for the opposite, a fall in the demand. Firms are interested in price elasticity of demand because they might have two prices, an equilibrium price and a price at which they want to increase production. When the price of a good falls, the quantity supplied will fall, which means the equilibrium price will rise.


In this blog post we gave an overview of the idea of buying an open-source software package. We won't go into the details of open-source licensing and development as we know there are multiple relevant resources available to help people get started with a project.The concept of buying an open-source software package revolves around the fact that more companies are choosing open-source alternatives to their products and services. That way, they are able to avoid the financial problems that are usually caused by software licensing costs.As an example, operating system vendor Linux has almost as many different types of distributions as there are desktop computer vendors.And because of this, there are different distributions of Linux which have their own advantages and disadvantages.

Monday, September 13, 2021


The Basics of Trigonometry


Trigonometry is a field of mathematics that studies relationships between side lengths and angles of triangles. The field emerged in the Hellenistic world during the 3rd century BC from applications of geometry to astronomical studies. Though many modern students who pursue this career are unaware of its history, it has always been important to engineers. Pythagoras, the Pythagorean Theorem and Archimedes’ The Great Bridge are just a few of the timeless concepts that the mathematics of triangles can be applied to. Trigonometry has two primary components: arithmetic and geometry. Geometry describes geometric relationships between lines and angles. Arithmetic is the study of multiplication, division, integration, and multiplication

Trigonometric Ratios

You'll start learning about trigonometry by studying ratios—sizes of the various areas in a triangle. Because we need to know the lengths and angles of the triangles so we can measure them, we have to find the ratios between the sides of each triangle. As we learn about ratios, we'll see that the lengths and angles of each side of a triangle have a relationship to each other, and to the sides of a third triangle, which we'll also need to make and compare. In other words, we want to know what the hypotenuse (the other side of the triangle) and the other two sides of the triangle (the sides opposite the other two sides of the triangle) are. A. The Pythagorean Theorem All three sides of a triangle have the same length if the square of the opposite side is 1.

Functions of Sine and Cosine

On top of being useful for math equations, trigonometry also works as a useful skill for everyone who uses an iPhone and uses the calculator app. On their own, sin and cosines are not very complicated operations. In the first step, you need to know how to understand what a “sin” and a “cosine” is, and what the corresponding ratios are. Trig, the technical name for trigonometry, is based on two other Greek terms that are called “a sinus” and “cose.” In physics, a sinus refers to the central or resonant peak of a vibrating system, and cose refers to the amplitude of a vibration. To find the volume of a system, the sinus is divided by the cose, and this measurement becomes a measure of the dimensions of the system. In trigonometry, these measurements are called “a sinus” and “a cosine.

Functions of Tangent and Cotangent

To begin with, let’s review some important concepts in trigonometry. Tangent Tangents are a function of one side of a triangle. The tangent at any point in a triangle will tell you how much the length of the opposite side is away from the tangent line. In other words, if you are on one side of a triangle, then the tangent to that side will tell you how far from the perpendicular your other side is. For example, if you are on one side of the triangle and the opposite side is located about 10 feet away from you on the other side, the tangent would be zero (that is, it is zero from one side to the other). If your original side is 30 feet away and your opposite side is 5 feet, then the tangent would be zero.

Applications of Trigonometry

To better understand how tridimensional triangles relate to angles, let's make some triangles. Triangle area of triangle with area 2 2 + (sin + cos) 2.6 Triangle area of triangle with area 2 2.6 Right triangle with area = [(sin - cos) 2.6)2 Triangle area of triangle with area = [(sin - cos) 2.6)2 Triangle area of triangle with area = [(sin - cos) 2.6)2 Triangle area of triangle with area = [(sin - cos) 2.6)2 Triangle area of triangle with area = [(sin - cos) 2.6)2 The two triangles with equal areas and side lengths are identical. Since angles between sides and lengths are one another, they must also have the same area. And the two triangles with equal angles and sides are identical. Since angles between sides and lengths are one another, they must also have the same area.

Sunday, September 12, 2021

systems of linear equations

Systems of Linear Equations

Systems of Linear Equations

In mathematics, a system of linear equations is a collection of one or more linear equations involving the same set of variables. The intersection point is the solution.

Solving Linear Systems

To solve a linear system, one simply has to divide each linear equation by the sum of the other variables in order to find the solution. This is done by substitution. There are two different equations used to find the solution for linear systems of three variables. The first equation is usually referred to as the explicit system of linear equations or equations A + B = C. The second equation is the implicit system of linear equations or equations A + B = C. In the explicit system, each variable is assigned a fixed value. For example, in the explicit system A equals 1, whereas in the implicit system, each variable has a variable value depending on which variable is being used to represent that variable.

Linear Systems in Three Variables

As you might expect, one of the most basic concepts of calculus involves the intersection of planes. A plane is defined as a three dimensional circle drawn on the plane defined by the three variables. The intersection point is the solution. Knowing that the intersection point of a plane is the solution, we can see that solving systems of linear equations using the intersection of three variables is the same as solving three plane equations. You can solve planes through the intersection of three variables by taking the derivatives. This is a single step process. In the world of math, a derivative of a function means the change in value as a function changes. An example would be a line in the plane that is bisected. That bisection creates two new lines.

Graphing Linear Systems

In trigonometry, graphs of linear systems are known as planes. Planes are three dimensional. Linear systems in Cartesian coordinate systems: The formula for constructing a plane is as follows: Consider a plane and find the linear equation between the origin of the plane and the point it divides into two. The above formula determines an invisible line, also known as a dot. The number of parallel lines passing through the origin of a plane is defined as the hypotenuse of the line. The formula for constructing a plane is as follows: Let the two equations of the plane be Let t be the length of the line and x and y be the number of such lines passing through the origin. There is one and only one solution to this system of equations.

Complex Solutions

The simplest linear equations involve real and imaginary parts of a variable, in addition to zero. The first example is the straight line equation of a line, E = 2. So the solution is 2. The second example is the equation for an ellipse, f = a + b, where a, b, and a*a are the coordinates of the ellipse. The solution is (1+b)/a. In addition, a and b are both unknown. The ellipse has two unknowns, the coordinates of the center and radius. A and b are the coordinates of the center and the radius, respectively. In addition, a and b are both unknown. The solution is the complex number (2a2b) + (1a2b), which is the distance (a*b) to the center. As long as two variables are either real or imaginary, linear systems can be solved.


Knowledge of how to solve linear equations is a powerful tool in your arsenal. Solving linear equations is part of many core mathematical education requirements, and I think it’s worth studying. You might even be able to write an article for me. Enjoyed this lesson? Look into Learning Algebra: Quick, Simple, and Easy Systems of Equations. It is perfect for students just starting their math education!

Friday, September 10, 2021


What is a semiconductor?


Silicon is a pure element, but a semiconductor is defined as any material which can conduct electricity. It would be possible to be a conductive metal, such as gold, but this is not a semiconductor. All materials which conduct electricity are semiconductors and all materials which do not are non-semiconductors. Cadmium Sulfide is a semiconductor, as is Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Nitride Electronic Devices Semiconductors are the heart of modern electronics. They are key components in all computing, telecommunications, radar, and guidance systems for missiles and aircraft. The transistor and vacuum tube are other very important components of electronics and are found in computers.

The types of semiconductors

Semiconductors can be of many different properties: Alkali (e.g. Na, K, Ca, Mg, etc.) Sulfur Amino (e.g. As, Cd, Mo, etc.) Boron Cobalt Sulphur diode (at right) Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) Lead selenide – the light on an OLED seems to follow the outline of the silver conductor, which is the rare earth metal tin Vacuum tube (valve) transistors – on a non-silicon silicon chip, light travels through electrons (vacuum tubes) and through a switch (transistor). Today, silicon is the most common semiconductor, as it is easier to work with and its properties are best understood. Other semiconductors which have many different properties are gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, indium phosphide – infrared photodetector, aluminum nitride, indium tin oxide, etc.

How do semiconductors work?

In the simplest form of semiconductors, metals and non-metals conduct electricity without any other chemicals involved. On the other hand, semiconductors that are conductors will do this via specialised molecules which conduct electricity at the same time as they carry electrical charge. The electricity carries the charge across the conductor, and the mobile molecules carry the electrical charge out of the conductor. Because the electrical current carrying charge passes over the conductor, and the electrons from a semiconductor do so at a specific velocity, the conductivity of the material is related to its Joule heating. This is one of the reasons that metals and semiconductors are so widely used in the production of electronic devices.

Who uses semiconductors?

Semiconductor Devices Semiconductor Devices are used for making many things such as components of electronic circuits (such as transistors and diodes), photovoltaic cells (converted by silicon), and laser diodes (sparked by the light of the radiation they emit). Semiconductor devices can also be used for making radio transmitters and receivers, cellular phone receivers, video game consoles and so on. What can I do with a semiconductor? Depending on the type of device (or area) being used, you could be looking at any of the following things. The main things that you will be looking for in a circuit are voltage, current, and power. Semiconductor Devices Components of Electronic Circuits Transistors: Transistors control the flow of current in electronic circuits.


The process of film forming a semiconductor is fairly simple in principle, and a new technique has been developed which makes the entire process accessible to beginners. The theory in terms of the physics of the process and the corresponding physical modelling is not complex, and the development of the necessary materials for the process has been carried out by many research groups. The systems that have been developed for the manufacturing of these wafers are also available commercially, although the costs have tended to be higher than those of the conventional technique. Theoretical understanding and modelling is also a prerequisite for improving the quality of the structures produced by the method.

Saturday, September 4, 2021

heat and mass transfer

heat and mass transfer

Heat and Mass Transfer: The Fundamentals

Heat and Mass Transfer

Heat and Mass Transfer is a serves the circulation of new developments in the field of basic research of heat and mass transfer phenomena, as well as related material properties and their measurements.

mechanical assignment help

What are heat and mass transfer?

Heat and mass transfer are commonly referred to as the processes by which an electric current (electromotive force) is applied to an external mechanical force and resulting heat is transferred from one body to another. A high voltage electrical circuit generates a low mechanical force. Heat transfer (also known as heat conduction) from a body to another is required to reach the object at a high temperature. The applied electrical voltage generates heat at the contact area between two material bodies. About the journal Published quarterly by Springer Nature, the journal features reviews, original papers, articles from leading scholars, conference abstracts, case studies and a dynamic communications area.

Fundamentals of thermal physics

Issued six times a year in print and online Issue Three - Heat and Mass Transfer

Fundamentals of fluid mechanics

The fundamental principle of fluid mechanics is that fluid motion is governed by mass conservation and pressure conservation, whereas surface friction provides a method of removing individual particles from fluid flow. This article provides a succinct outline of the diverse properties of fluids that we deal with in our everyday lives. To begin, we will briefly discuss the Navier-Stokes equation, which is considered the key analytical tool in fluid mechanics. The Navier-Stokes equation, which was introduced in 1807 by the French mathematician and physicist Émile Léonard de Villefière, explains how, at any given time, fluid flows over a surface in a manner that preserves the product of the speed of movement and the force of gravity.

Fundamentals of mass transfer

The conceptual science of mass transfer comprises mechanical, thermal and convective phenomena. These are used for convective cooling in low temperature systems, for heat transfer in large heat capacities and for cold plasmas. Generally, the physical phenomena of mass transfer can be divided into four main categories: static mass transfer, dynamic mass transfer, turbulent mass transfer and heat conduction. Dynamic mass transfer occurs in high temperatures, where fluid particles move through a medium and are influenced by the shear, capillary, radial and viscous forces. Sometimes, fluids at low temperature can also be considered as the solution to the equation of state of the fluid.


Time and time again we have found that funders are not looking for science-based results. Instead, they look for a “high impact” study. As we continue to see, money doesn’t determine research quality. In the pursuit of a high impact study, institutions like RPI rely on questionable science. Instead of working towards making a positive change in society, they are choosing to dig into relationships between race and blood test results. Is there a place for toxicology at RPI? Is there a need for true research that will improve the quality of life of the students? The answer is “No.” It’s time to bring real science back to the undergraduate science community. Let’s work towards producing results that are both well respected and effective.

material requirements planning

Material Requirements Planning material requirements planning,mrp system,ddmrp,material resource planning,mrp system meaning,mrp planning,...